Day 2 :
University of Minho, Portugal
Time : 10:00-10:40
Robert Russell Monteith Paterson has worked on Mycotoxins for decades. He produced the first paper on Mycotoxins and Climate Change (CC) (2010) which is the most cited paper on the subject: The follow up in 2011 is also highly cited. He reported the first case of “Mycotoxins in water and PCR probe used as a mycotoxin metabolic pathway detector”. He reviewed “CC effects on mycotoxins in specific crops”. CC effects on oil palms were reported in 2015 and 2016. He guest edited a 2015 special issue on Food Mycology involving CC and Mycotoxins in Current Opinion in Food Science.
Mycotoxins and climate change (CC) is a narrative of transition. It concerns three systems: Fungi, mycotoxins and crops, all of which will be in great flux. Fungi involved in mycotoxin production now and in the past will not remain the same hence, studying them as indicators of the future requires care. The fungi will be subjected to additional UV irradiation from increased sunlight and from more or higher concetrations of mutagenic mycotoxins leading to modified or new species with different optima for growth and mycotoxin production. Interactions with the environment such as the effects of temperature, CO2 and moisture, and other organisms will be different. Fungal taxonomy and physiology will have renaissances. Mycotoxins of concern will change and conventional ones may increase in concentration while contaminating unconventional crops. Currently, unimportant mycotoxins, or new ones, may become relevant, meaning that surveys of all possible mycotoxins must increase. Crops will not be able to grow in some regions, or become stressed, leading to greater mycotoxin contamination. However, some crops will grow in new regions with less contamination from the ‘parasites lost’ phenomenon. The climate for crops in storage can be modified in technologically-advanced countries, helpful for controlling mycotoxin production, although the fungi on the stored crops may be different from now. New technologies, concepts and equipment will be required to ameliorate the changes. Finally, there are more questions than answers with respect to mycotoxins and CC, although the consequences will be profound, unless CC can be greatly reduced.
Ghent University, Belgium
Time : 10:40-11:20
Gunther Antonissen completed his Master’s Degree in Veterinary Medicine at Ghent University in Belgium in 2011. He completed his PhD in Veterinary Sciences at Ghent University in 2015, studying “The predisposing effect of mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and fumonisins on necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens”. Currently, he is a Post-doctoral Researcher in Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, and Department of Bacteriology, Pathology and Avian Diseases at Ghent University, investigating “The impact of mycotoxins and phytogenic on the intestinal physiology and micro-biota”. He is a frequent speaker at animal and poultry scientific conferences and technical meetings.
Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This presentation summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxins exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry, rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well.
Mahidol University, Thailand
Keynote: Prevalence and distribution of beta-lactamase coding genes in third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates in Thailand and Vietnam
Time : 11:35-12:15
Ratana Lawung has done her BSc and MSc in Medical Technology from Mahidol University, Thailand and PhD in Engineering (Pure and Applied Biochemistry) from Lund University, Sweden. She worked at the Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Thailand. My research work is focused on bacterial drug resistance identification and epidemiological study of antimicrobial-resistant organism in many hospitals and centers in Thailand and South East Asia regions.
Antimicrobial resistance is one serious global health problems especially in Asia. Dissemination of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) bacteria, carbapenem resistance bacteria, and emergence of plasmid mediated colistin resistance (mcr-1) bacteria play important concerns. Also presence of integron class 1 (IL-1) highlights the risk of rapid spread of resistance genes especially in clinical settings. Molecular methods for identification of broad spectrum antimicrobial resistance are high benefit. Detection methods were developed for the CTX-M extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (CTX-M-ESBL), plasmid-mediated AmpC cephalosporinase (pAmpC), carbapenemase, mcr-1, and integron class 1 (IL-1) genes in Enterobacteriaceae and identification of carbapenemase and mcr-1 genes in Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Difference in geological regions and treatment prescription may cause diversified resistance patterns. Our methods were successfully applied to study the dissemination of resistance genes at various regions. This study indicated that ESC-R bacteria harboring with one and multiple β-lactamase genes were disseminated in Thailand and Vietnam. In conclusion, epidemiological study of drug resistance pathogen should be strengthened, to provide strong guidance for clinical management, promote effective treatment of patients and use for prevention and control the spread of this antimicrobial-resistant organism.