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3rd International Conference on Medical and Clinical Microbiology, will be organized around the theme “Recent Methodologies to Enhance Research in Medical and Clinical Microbiology”
Clinical Microbiology 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Clinical Microbiology 2019
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Pure Microbiology provides a broad platform of a large excess of research and plenty of new insights into different areas of Microbiology. Different branches of Microbiology include mycology, Virology, Immunology, infectious diseases, bacteriology, nematology, parasitology, etc., the antibiotics are the agents used against pathogenic bacteria, either orally or paternally.
Clinical Microbiology conference provides a comprehensive theoretical and practical review of advanced techniques like robotics surgery, sensitive skin, hybridism technology, iris scanning, medical imaging and thermography. Clinical Microbiology is the subject in which any microbes can cause infection in humans. As we know, new microorganisms are being discovered all the time and they are developing more and more resistance to antibiotics, hence microbiologist aims at the application of different microbes for the betterment of human health. Antimicrobial therapy implements the clinical use of antimicrobial agents in treating communicable disease. The positive conclusion of this antimicrobial medical care depends on many factors like website of infection, host defense mechanisms and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics activity of the medication agent. A disinfectant activity depends on the microorganism growth and microorganism division.
Medical microbiology is a branch of medicine dealing with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious as well as non-infectious diseases. Medical microbiologists deal with clinical consultations on the investigation, principles of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of infectious diseases; the scientific development, administrative and medical direction of a clinical microbiology laboratory; the establishment and direction of infection control programs across the continuum of care; communicable disease prevention and epidemiology and related public health issues.
Rapid identification of microorganisms in the clinical microbiology can be of great value for selection of optimal patient management strategies for infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, mycobacteria, and parasites. Rapid identification of microorganisms in clinical samples enables expedient de-escalation from broad-spectrum agents to targeted antimicrobial therapy. The switch to tailored therapy minimizes risks of antibiotics, namely, disruption of normal flora, toxic side effects, and selective pressure. There is a critical need for new technologies in clinical microbiology, particularly for bloodstream infections, in which associated mortality is among the highest of all infections. Just as importantly, there is a need for the clinical laboratory community to embrace the practices of evidence-based interventional laboratory medicine and collaborate in translational research projects to establish the clinical utility, cost benefit, and impact of new technologies.
Environmental Microbiology is devoted to the advancement of our understanding of microbial interactions and microbial processes in the environment; Environmental microbiology is the study of the composition and physiology of microbial communities in the environment. The environment in this case means the soil, water, air and sediments covering the planet and can also include the animals and plants that inhabit these areas. Environmental microbiology also includes the study of microorganisms that exist in artificial environments such as bioreactors.
Cellular microbiology is a field that deals with the pathogenic microbes and attempts to use them as tools for cell-biology research, and to employ cell-biology methods to understand the pathogenicity of microbes. It is the combination of cell biology and molecular biology. It deals with cell cycle, metabolism, signal transduction, anatomy and physiology. It also deals with the transfiguring microbes to antibiotic agent.
Food microbiology is the study of microorganisms that inhabit, create or spoil food. There are several microbes that play a vital role in the production of various food products including beer, wines, breads, cheese, yogurt and other fermented foods. They also play a vital role in food safety, authenticity and testing.
Industrial microbiology is a branch of biotechnology that integrates the science of microbes and industries. They are used to produce products in huge amounts. They use several techniques like gene amplification, mutations etc. These techniques are used in agriculture, food industry, chemical industry etc.
Molecular Microbiology deals with the 3 major disciplines in microbiology; it is a bridge between Molecular biology, Microbial Physiology and Genetics. It deals with the inter-dependent microbial & molecular interactions, for instance, signaling in bacteria and Gene therapy in Viruses; which are both essential in treating genetic diseases with the assistance of viral vectors.
Microbial genetics is concerned with the transmission of hereditary characters in microorganisms. It plays a unique role in developing the fields of molecular and cell biology. Conjugation, transformation, and transduction are the important methods for mapping the genes on bacterial chromosomes.
Microbes are a very important component of life on earth. Not all microbes are pathogenic. Many microbes are very useful to human beings. We use microbes and microbial derived products almost every day. Antibiotics have played a major role in controlling infectious diseases like diphtheria, whooping cough and pneumonia. Microbes brings lot of welfare for human beings in Vaccination and Antibiotics, Household Products like Lactobacillus is a bacterium that is found in curd, Sewage Treatment -Bacteria such as Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, are involved in fermenting sewage. Pseudomonas is also one of the bacteria involved in breakdown of organic matter. Gobar Gas Formation- Gobar gas is formed anaerobically by Methanobacterium. Viruses are used as a vector for transmission of required gene during recombinant DNA Technology.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and remember it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters.
An antimicrobial can be described as an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be assembled according to the microorganisms they principally act against. Antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. Antimicrobial chemotherapy implements the clinical use of antimicrobial agents in treating infectious disease. The positive conclusion of this antimicrobial medical aid depends on many factors like site of infection, host defense mechanisms and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics activity of the antibacterial drug agent.
Pathogenicity refers to the ability of an organism to cause disease (i.e. harm the host). This ability represents a genetic component of the pathogen and the overt damage done to the host is a property of the host-pathogen interactions. Commensals and opportunistic pathogens lack this inherent ability to cause disease. However, disease is not an inevitable outcome of the host-pathogen interaction and, furthermore, pathogens can express a wide range of virulence. Virulence, a term often used interchangeably with pathogenicity, refers to the degree of pathology caused by the organism. The extent of the virulence is usually correlated with the ability of the pathogen to multiply within the host and may be affected by other factors. The development of a disease state is a dynamic process that is dependent on the virulence of the pathogen and the resistance of the host. It covers biology, host-pathogen interaction and medicine associated with infectious agents, as well as microorganism, fungi, viruses and protozoa. Microbic pathological process is committed to the study of the genomic, molecular and cellular bases of clinical infectious diseases.
Contamination is the intrusion of a living being's body tissues by ailment causing specialists, their increase, and the response of host tissues to these life forms and the poisons they produce. Diseases are caused by irresistible specialists including infections, viroid’s, prions, microorganisms, nematodes, for example, parasitic roundworm sand pinworms, arthropods, for example, ticks, bugs, insects, and lice, organisms, for example, ringworm, and different macro parasites, for example, tapeworms and different helminthes. A contamination caused by microorganisms. The development of numerous ailment causing microscopic organisms can be stopped by the utilization of anti-toxins.
The capacity of an organism to resist disease, either through the activities of dedicated blood cells or antibodies produced by them in response to natural exposure or inoculation (active immunity). A vaccine is a product that produces immunity from a disease and can be directed through needle injections, by mouth, or by aerosol. A vaccination is the injection of a killed or weakened organism that produces immunity in the body against that organism. There are vaccines that are administered entirely when the patient has contracted an illness. The intent of such immunizations is to cause an immediate reaction with weakened side-effects.
A disease is an abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function that affects part or the organism entirely. The study of disease is called pathology which includes the study of cause of the disease. Disease is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. Detection of a specific agent for an infection or a health problem is done in clinical presentation. It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions particularly of the immune system such as an immunodeficiency, or a hypersensitivity including allergies and autoimmunity.
The Public Health and Microbiology concentration includes studies in microbial pathogenesis, principles of public health, epidemiology, molecular genetics, virology, and environmental and industrial microbial processes. This concentration prepares students for technical work or graduate school in microbial disease systems using polymerase chain reaction, other molecular diagnostic tools as well as environmental and industrial applications of microbial systems.
Enzymes are considered as a potential biocatalyst for a large number of reactions. Particularly, the microbial enzymes have widespread uses in industries and medicine. The microbial enzymes are also more active and stable than plant and animal enzymes. In addition, the microorganisms represent an alternative source of enzymes because they can be cultured in large quantities in a short time by fermentation and owing to their biochemical diversity and susceptibility to gene manipulation. Industries are looking for new microbial strains in order to produce different enzymes to fulfill the current enzyme requirements.
A biofilm is any cluster of microorganisms among that cells persists with one another and sometimes these cells adhere to a surface. These follower cells wind up plainly inserted inside a foul extracellular lattice that is made out of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). The EPS parts are delivered by the phones inside the biofilm and are normally a polymeric aggregation of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and speak to a group way of life for microorganisms, biofilms are every now and again depicted allegorically as "urban communities for microbes." A biofilm is a framework that can be adjusted inside to ecological conditions by its occupants.
It is one of the many facets of Pharmaceutical Microbiology. It bears on all aspects of pharmacy, from the manufacture and quality control of pharmaceutical products through to an understanding of the mode of action of antibiotics. Other parts of pharmaceutical microbiology incorporate the innovative work of hostile to infective operators, the utilization of microorganisms to identify mutagenic and cancer-causing movement in forthcoming medications, and the utilization of microorganisms in the fabricate of pharmaceutical items like Stem cell and human development hormone, that is responsible for ensuring medications that do not contain harmful levels of the microbes such as bacteria, viruses, yeast & molds. It mainly focuses the manufacturing techniques, process controls and the finished products it attributes the limit and the harmful effects of microorganisms on the drug product.
Marine Microbiology is the study of microorganisms that living in saltwater open oceans, estuaries, sea sediments etc. It focusses mainly on the interaction of the macro organisms and microorganisms within these communities. 50% of earth’s oxygen is generated by these marine organisms. It includes the biodiversity, ecology and biogeochemistry of marine organisms.
Veterinary microbiology deals with the study of diseases caused on vertebrates domesticated animals that provide us food, other useful products and companionship. The animals should be vaccinated regularly. The wild animals with microbial disease in the living locality should be considered as it may affect the human beings and other animals. It deals with the spread of disease from animals to humans and spread among animals. It also deals with the treatment and other preventive measures.
This branch of Biotechnology that applies microbial sciences and industries together. It uses microorganisms to produce a desired product in mass quantities in order to make a profit out of it. There are multiple ways to manipulate a microorganism in order to increase maximum yield of product. Introduction of mutations into an organism many be accomplished by introducing them to mutagens. Another way to increase production is by gene amplification, this is done by the use of plasmids, and vectors. The plasmids and/ or vectors are used to incorporate multiple copies of a specific gene that would allow more enzymes to be produced that eventually cause more product yield. The manipulation of organisms in order to yield a specific product has many applications to the real world like the production of some antibiotics, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, solvents, alcohol and daily products. They can also be used in an agricultural application and use them as a bio pesticide instead of using dangerous chemicals or as inoculants and help plant proliferation.
Soil microbiology is the study of organisms in soil, their functions, and how they affect soil properties. It is believed that between two and four billion years ago, the first ancient bacteria and microorganisms came about in Earth's oceans. These bacteria could fix nitrogen, in time multiplied and as a result released oxygen into the atmosphere. This led to more advanced microorganisms. Microorganisms in soil are important because they affect soil structure and fertility. Soil microorganisms can be classified as bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, algae and protozoa. Each of these groups has characteristics that define them and their functions in soil.
Environmental microbiology it is the study of microorganisms that are living in artificial environments such as bioreactors, it is the composition and physiology of microbial communities in the environment. Microorganisms are present widely in the biosphere, and microorganisms’ presence it invariably affects the environment where they grow. By the effects of microorganisms in the environment can be beneficial or harmful to human measure. So the Beneficial effects of microbes are derived from metabolic activities from the environment, its associations with plants, animals and from their use in food production and biotechnological processes.
Molecular microbiology is the branch of microbiology devoted to the study of the molecular basis of the physiological processes that occur in microorganisms. It deals with molecular mechanisms and physiological processes of microbes and their utilization in production of biotechnology products and medicines such as vaccines, antibodies. It also involves advancement in pathogenicity of microbes.
Industrial microbiology is an area of applied microbiology which deals with screening, management, and exploitation of microorganisms for the engenderment of utilizable end products on an immensely colossal scale. It plays a key role in the various industries such as food, dairy, medical, brewing and cosmetic industry.
The microbial food web refers to the combined trophic interactions among microbes in aquatic environments. These microbes include viruses, bacteria, and algae, heterotrophic protists (such as ciliates and flagellates).
In aquatic environments, microbes constitute the base of the food web. Single celled photosynthetic organisms such as diatoms and cyanobacteria are generally the most important primary producers in the open ocean.
According to microbiologists the nematodes parasites are "the most numerous animals on Earth" with about 80,000 prevailing and recognized species which are only 40% of all the nematodes on earth. Generally It Is seen in the water bodies- oceans and freshwater and sometimes also in the loamy soils. Basically they are found as internal parasites in the digestive system, generally intestines in humans and animals. Thread worms is the most prevalent and commonly seen nematodes with small parasites, Either at the anterior end or at the posterior end the mouths of these nematodes are seen, by the gut being a non-muscular straight tube near the anus. Unlike other worms, roundworms, thread worms do not exhibit hermaphroditism i.e. the sexes are different and not present in the same parasite. Cilia are absent, and so are the respiratory system and a circulatory system is there. Protozoology, which is the study of protozoans, With Antoine von Leeuwenhoek in his first microscope the single-celled eukaryotic organisms, the same organisms which were first studied and observed
- Nematodes parasites
- Internal parasites
- plant parasitic nematodes
- Entomophilic, marine and freshwater nematodes
Medical parasitology traditionally has included the study of three major groups of animals: parasitic protozoa, parasitic helminthes (worms), and those arthropods that directly cause disease or act as vectors of various pathogens. A parasite is a pathogen that simultaneously injures and derives sustenance from its host. Some organisms called parasites are actually commensals, in that they neither benefit nor harm their host (for example, Entamoeba coli).
Infections of humans caused by parasites number in the billions and range from relatively innocuous to fatal. The diseases caused by these parasites constitute major human health problems throughout the world. (For example, approximately 30 percent of the world's population is infected with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.)
Other parasitic illnesses have increased in importance as a result of the AIDS epidemic (e.g., cryptosporidiosis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and strongyloidiasis).
During the past 10 years, genomics-based approaches have had a profound impact on the field of microbiology and our understanding of microbial species. Because of their larger genome sizes, genome sequencing efforts on fungi and unicellular eukaryotes were slower to get started than projects focused on prokaryotes; however, today there are a number of genome sequences available from both of these groups of organisms that have led to significant improvements in overall sequence annotation and also shed considerable light on novel aspects of their biology. According to the World Health Organization more than 1 million people acquire a sexually transmitted infection (STI) every day and an estimated 500 million people become ill with Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis or trichomoniasis every year. Approximately 40% of the bacterial species that have been targeted for genome analysis represent important human pathogens. Approximately 40% of the bacterial species that have been targeted for genome analysis represent important human pathogens. Using a whole-genome shotgun approach, Tyson et al. (2004) were able to reconstruct two almost complete genome sequences of Leptospirillum group II and Ferro plasma type II and the partial sequence of three other species from a low-complexity acid mine drainage biofilm growing underground within a pyrite ore body.
During the times of Aristotle & Plato, when people believed that living organisms could take birth from non-living organisms, to the 13th Century, when Rogen Bacon, termed the name “germ” for agents that cause diseases/ infections to Anthony Van Leuwenhoek, who in 1676 observed the very first microbes, the “Animalcules”, to the year 1878, when Sedillot coined the term, microbe- which is all included in the “Discovery Era” of Microbiology, which later transitioned into the “Transition Era” where the major contributions were made by Redi, Needham, & Spallanzi to the “Golden Era” of Louis Pasteur, Lister, Tyndall, Koch, Petri, Hesse, Jenner, Flemming & Ehrlich to the now, “Modern Era” Microbiology has evolved and transitioned a lot. Since 384 BC it is evolving where the research in microbiology has evolved with the evolution in the technology had bridged the gap of the disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics, and physics. Microbiology, in present days is not only a single stand-off field, rather it is more of inter-depending & inter-related field, without this, other fields will crumble. Also, Microbiology has given some numerous sub-fields, which are in-turn a field in itself.
- Microbial translocation
- Legionella PCR
- Microbial endurance
- Applications of viral vectors
- Flow Cytometery
- Defining curricula for harmonized European specialties CM and ID
- Achieving acceptance for CM and ID in all countries
- Staffing – we need new skills (molecular microbiology, pharmacology, epidemiology, bioinformatics, computer science, statistics, and infection control) and acceptance for these and to strengthen the need for “old skills” – the “medical microbiologist”.
- Retaining identity when amalgamated with other specialties (CM with “bio pathology” and ID with Internal Medicine
- Old diseases with new faces – tuberculosis, influenza, C.difficile, poliomyelitis,
- Antimicrobial resistance (bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, parasites.) obviating successful treatment