Day 3 :
- Vaccines Against Infectious Diseases
College of Science
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Mariappan Premanathan is presently working as a professor in College of Science, Majmah University in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. His research interest include virology,bacteriology and diagnosis of infectious diseases.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major etiological agent for liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hepatitis C, an infection of high prevalence worldwide, is insidiously progressive.. According to world health organization more than 185 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus and, of these, about 0.35 million die every year. HCV screening is an obligatory procedure in Saudi Arabia for blood donors, pre marriage screening, preoperative cases, Medical check-ups, predisposed cases of out-patient (OP) as well as in-patient (IP) care. For this epidemiological survey, cases from Government General Hospital at Zulfi, Majmaah, Hefer Al Batin were included. Data from 2009 to 2014 were analysed. During 6 years of study period, totally 174504 blood serum samples were screened by ELISA, among 407 (0.23%) cases were positive. Highest incidence was observed in IP cases (0.8%) and the lowest in medical checkup group (0.2%). OP cases were the second least group with 0.21% of positive cases. Pre-marriage screening is the second highest incidence group with 0.33% of positive cases. The voluntary blood donors were also considerably positive with 0.28% with 68 positive cases of 24490 screened. The retrospective study proved that the commendable population found to be positive for HCV while screening in predisposition IP cases, pre marriage testing and blood donation. It suggests that the screening tests are to be increased and intensified as a mandatory test for all the cases who steps into medical laboratory.
Ahmed Hegazi is currently a Professor of Microbiology and Immunology in the National Research Center, Egypt. Prof. Hegazi received his master’s degree in 1979, and his PhD in 1981. Hegazi's research work has been focused lately on bee products and their therapeutic effects. Hegazi organized and contributed to national and international research projects since 1977 and up till now; he has been the principal investigator on multiple research projects within the National Research Center. He has published 207 scientific papers and articles in national and international journals. He also served on the board of multiple national and international scientific journals. Dr. Hegazi is also the president of the Egyptian Environmental Society for Uses and Production of Bee Products, secretary of the Egyptian Society of Apitherapy, secretary general of the African Federation of Apiculture Associations, and a member of the International Apitherapy Commission (APIMONDIA). Dr. Hegazi awards; First Class Decoration of Excellence, Egypt, 1995, The Senior Scientist Prize of National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt, 1996, The National Scientific Prize In Biological Sciences, Egypt, 1990, The Scientific Prize of The National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt, 1989, The Second Best Research Paper Award, International Congress of Propolis, Bones Airs, Argentina, 2000, Main Speaker Award,10th Academic Conference, PRA and NAS (Nippon Apitherapy Soc.) Japan, 2006, 2 Bronze medals from The International Innovation Fair of the Middle East, Kuwait, 2007 Awarded of Ghazi Wad Allah Salon Prize, 2008 and have 4 patents. Patents
Bee venom is very complex mixture of active peptides, enzymes, and amines. The composition of the venom produced by the glands of Apis mellifera has been well documented. The therapeutic application of bee venom, has been used in traditional medicine to treat diseases. It has biological activity as inhibit mammary carcinoma cell proliferation), cytotoxic to malignant cells both in vitro, arthritis, rheumatism, pain, cancerous tumors, and skin diseases, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) venom therapy (apitherapy) has been elucidated therapeutic value for bacterial diseases and reported to be as effective as antibacterial drugs. Antimicrobial activity on some Gram-negative bacteria as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli and Citrobacter freundii and Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and E. coli. The aim of this review was, therefore, to evaluate the data from antimicrobial activity of bee venom.