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9th International Summit on Clinical Microbiology , will be organized around the theme “Clinical Microbiology: The place and the contribution to clinical field”
Clinical Microbiology 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Clinical Microbiology 2018
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Immunology refers to physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and disease; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ, and in vivo. Several approaches has been developed by the immune system to control viral and bacterial infection, which range from direct killing of pathogen to elaborating cytokines that inhibit replication. Pathogens have countered by developing a variety of immune evasion mechanisms that inhibit cytokine function and prevent immune recognition of infected cells.
- Track 1-1Lupus
- Track 1-2Scleroderma
- Track 1-3Vacuities
- Track 1-4Type one diabetes
- Track 1-5Graves’ disease
- Track 1-6Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Track 1-7Skin Disorders
- Track 1-8Multiple Sclerosis
- Track 1-9Pernicious Anemia
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infections are infection that is passed from one person to another through sexual contact. Most STDs affect both men and women, but in many cases the health problems they cause can be more severe for women. If a pregnant woman has an STD, it can cause health problems for the baby. Antibiotics can treat STDs caused by bacteria, yeast, or parasites. There is no cure for STDs caused by a virus, but medicines can often help with the symptoms and keep the disease control. Usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading STDs.
- Track 2-1HIV/AIDS
- Track 2-2Gonorrhea
- Track 2-3Chlamydia
- Track 2-4Chancroid
- Track 2-5Syphilis
- Track 2-6Hepatitis B
- Track 2-7Genital herpes
- Track 2-8Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
Nano medicine is the medical application of nanotechnology. Nano medicine ranges from the medical applications of nanomaterial’s and biological devices to Nano electronic biosensors and even possible future applications of molecular nanotechnology such as biological machines. Current problems for Nano medicine involve understanding the issues related to toxicity and environmental impact of Nano scale materials (materials whose structure is on the scale of nanometers, i.e. billionths of a meter).
Nano medicine seeks to deliver a valuable set of research tools and clinically useful devices in the near future. The National Nanotechnology Initiative expects new commercial applications in the pharmaceutical industry that may include advanced drug delivery systems, new therapies, and in vivo imaging. Nano medicine research is receiving funding from the US National Institutes of Health Common Fund program, supporting four Nano medicine development centers.
Nano medicine sales reached $16 billion in 2015, with a minimum of $3.8 billion in nanotechnology R&D being invested every year. Global funding for emerging nanotechnology increased by 45% per year in recent years, with product sales exceeding $1 trillion in 2013.As the Nano medicine industry continues to grow. It is expected to have a significant impact on the economy.
- Track 3-1Heart nanotechnology
- Track 3-2Drug delivery
- Track 3-3Medical Imaging
- Track 3-4Blood purification
- Track 3-5Tissue engineering
- Track 3-6Biomedical Engineering
- Track 3-7Microbial Nanotechnology
Microbial pathogens embody microorganism, viruses, fungi, and parasites and along account for a major proportion of acute and chronic human diseases. Additionally to understanding the mechanisms by that varied pathogens cause human un wellness, analysis in microbic pathological process additionally addresses mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and also the development of latest antimicrobial agents and vaccines. It covers biology, host-pathogen interaction and medicine associated with infectious agents, as well as microorganism, fungi, viruses and protozoa. microbic pathological process is committed to the study of the genomic, molecular and cellular bases of clinical infectious diseases
- Track 4-1 Pathology of infections
- Track 4-2Molecular pathology
- Track 4-3Clinical Pathology
- Track 4-4Veterinary Pathology
- Track 4-5Advancements in diagnostic pathology
- Track 4-6Vector borne transmission
Nosocomial Infection comprises infection which is struck from the hospital surroundings, staff, in-patients/out-patients, cleaners and other healthcare centers. These infections can be contracted in any of the health-care departments like- the Hospital environment or the Nursing Home, Rehabilitation Centers or other Clinical settings. Nosocomial Infections are relayed to the pre-disposed in such environments by an innumerable ways. Various Health care personnel can spread different infections via contaminated equipment, Soiled/unclean/non-disinfected bed linens and other clothes, blankets, pillows, or air droplets. These infections can spread either from outside of the hospital, from in-patient, staff that may be infected, or carriers, unknown sources. In most of the pathogenic microorganisms originate from the patient's own skin flora, also called as opportunistic microbes; after any surgical process or those procedures that compromises skin as the primary protective barrier. Albeit, the patient contracts the infection privy from their skin, the infection are considered to be nosocomial since it emanates in the hospital.
- Track 5-1Urinary tract infections
- Track 5-2Hospital-acquired pneumonia
- Track 5-3Control and treatment
- Track 5-4Eye Infections
The analysis of the molecular and cellular viscera constituting the immune system, subsuming their function and interaction, is the pivotal science of immunology. Autoimmune diseases are an expansive spectrum of analogous diseases in which the immune system produces an erroneous retroaction against privy cells, tissues and/or organs, ensuing inflammation and damage. There are furthermore 80 different autoimmune diseases ranging from commonly prevalent to very discreet diseases. Cell-based immunotherapies are validated to be competent for some cancers. Immune effector cells for instance, Macrophages, Lymphocytes, Natural Killer cells (NK Cell), Dendritic cells, Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) etc., work collectively to shield the body against cancer by directing the encounter on deviant antigens expressed superficially on the tumor owing to mutation. Allergies and sensitivities have augmented exorbitantly in the recent interim — Acute, Chronic and Subclinical Allergies have been intensified so radically that estimates are that over 60 million Americans have various allergies and few more millions suffer from sensitivities.As implied by the U.S Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the Respiratory syncytial infection (RSV) is the primary reason for bronchiolitis &/or pneumonia in the children under one in the United States. Each year 75,000 to 125,000 kids on an average are hospitalized because of RSV diseases.
- Track 6-1Epidemiology of bacterial infections
- Track 6-2Veterinary epidemiology
- Track 6-3 Plant disease epidemiology
- Track 6-4Epidemiology of fungal infections
- Track 6-5Disease epidemiology and cases studies
Infection control is the forestalling/prevention of nosocomial infections. It is a part of the framework of the health care. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology are pertinent to the public health practice, interpolated in a particular health-care distribution system. Anti-infective agents, like for instance antibiotics - essentially antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoal are readily accessible to annihilate infections. Infection control comprises elements relevant to the transmission of infections; either in the hospitals or other healthcare centers including prevention via hand hygiene, cleaning or disinfection or sanitization, vaccines or surveillance and probe of infections in a health-care domain and management. Sterilization kills all microorganisms- live or dominant. Sterilizers are categorized in heat, steam and liquid categories. Disinfection is wiping / killing of the live micro-organisms at room temperatures. Ultraviolet light (UV Light) is also used to sterilize the rooms of infected/ pre-disposed patients after discharge. The essential factor is that disinfection is less effective than sterilization because disinfection does not harm bacterial spores or dominant bacteria. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is few protective gears to be worn for protection against hazards of sterilizations or while using equipment. The primitive hazards in any given healthcare comprises of blood, saliva, other body fluids or aerosols that carry infectious agents like Hepatitis C, HIV, and other blood borne or fluid pathogen. PPE helps preventing contact with a potentially infectious agent by framing a physical barrier between the potential infectious agent and the healthcare professional.
The Global Infectious Disease industry is envisaged to reach $8.8 billion by 2017, growing at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of about 6% from 2010.
- Track 7-1Infection Control in healthcare facilities
- Track 7-2Outbreak investigation
- Track 7-3Sterilization & Disinfection
- Track 7-4Personal protective equipments
- Track 7-5Surveillance for infections
Study of the interaction of the parasite and their hosts is Parasitology. Medical parasitology has it’s congruence with the pathogenic parasites affecting humans, the diseases, clinical pathology and the response of the human’s immune system against these pathogenic Microorganism. It also deals with the different approaches of the infection and diagnosis, treatment, prevention & control. Additionally medical parasitology also comprises of structural based Drug Development, Epidemiological Studies and zoonosis. An interdisciplinary field, inveigled by Biochemistry, Immunology, Microbiology, and other applied life sciences. Parasites inhabit the host of a remarkably high immuno-potent immune system. Vector-borne infections are transferred via bite of an infected arthropod, for instance mosquitoes, ticks, bugs, sandflies and blackflies. Resistant parasitic worms developed resistance against other infectious agents although the mechanisms of resistance in protozoan parasites are not yet acknowledged. About 50% of known positive malarial cases are caused by P. vivax. Prevailing advancements in state-of-the-art diagnostic tools has ascertained new facets for colossal enhancements in parasitic detection. Control and dissolution of human parasitic diseases require innovative outlooks, notably in the fields of diagnostics, modeling, investigation, interpretation, scrutiny and public health response.
The Global Animal Healthcare industry was venerated at US $27,861.2 million in 2013 and is envisaged to grow at a CAGR of about 7.1% to achieve an anticipated US $41,929.1 million by 2019.
- Track 8-1Medical Parasitology
- Track 8-2Veterinary Parasitology
- Track 8-3Blood Parasites
- Track 8-4Malaria Research
- Track 8-5 Parasitic Disease Control
Viral infections are quite prevalent, most typically seen are the common cold, hepatitis, influenza, measles, rabies, Dengue, diarrhea, AIDS , polio, smallpox, cold sores and genital herpes, Study of various ways through which viruses affect individuals are specified as viral pathogenesis. The purview of the disease/ infection caused by the virus is its virulence. When a virus invades into the host, the immune system starts producing specific/ impromptu antibodies that binds to the virus thereby neutralizing its virulence or kills them. Presence of such antibodies in blood serum detects if a host has ever been exposed to any given virus in the past. This is possible only with the help of specific tests such as ELISA. Vaccinations protect against diseases, by augmenting the production of antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies, are profoundly specific to a single virus, are typically used for detection in fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, viruses being used as gene vectors in the gene therapy of genetic diseases are also gaining momentum; similarly in phage therapy, use of the bacteriophages to encounter bacterial infections and diseases was effectual. The recent approach of genetically engineered viruses in nanobiotechnology is seen as the novel approach to combat various diseases at the genetic level.
Due to the rampant HCV infection and high insistence for such enhanced and effectual treatments, numerous estimates envisage the global industry for HCV treatment costs $20 billion annually, this decade.
- Track 9-1Pathogenic viruses
- Track 9-2Viral diseases and host defences
- Track 9-3Herpes simplex virus
- Track 9-4Antiviral therapy
- Track 9-5Clinical virology
Bacterial diseases constitutes infections whose essential causative organism is bacteria. In bacterial pathogens is the bacteria infects and causes a disease in the host whose cell it invaded in. However, not all bacteria are pathogenic and they have the ability to cause a disease. Bacteria also resides in host without harming it in a symbiotic relation and also helps in building a response against the invading foreign opportunistic bacteria from harming the host. Bacteria primarily produce two types of toxins called the Exotoxins and the Endotoxins. These toxins are soluble can be transported by both blood and lymph and causes cytotoxicity at remote tissue sites. Bacteria also infect skin, causing skin infections like Impetigo, Erysipelas and Cellulitis among numerous others. Urinary Tract Infection (UTIs) are mainly caused by Escherichia coli; Typhoid fever by Salmonella typhi. Bacterial infections are generally treated by antibiotics, which are further categorized as Bactericidal – Antibiotics that kill bacteria and Bacteriostatic – Antibiotics which prevent bacterial growth and hindering their metabolism. Profoundly extensive use of such antibiotics contributes to the swift advancement of the antibiotic resistance in the pathogenic bacterial populations.
- Track 10-1 Bacterial Pathogenesis
- Track 10-2 Plant bacteriology
- Track 10-3Veterinary bacteriology
- Track 10-4Bacterial identification
- Track 10-5Bacterial diagnosis
Antimicrobial agents kill and/or inhibit the growth of microorganisms and are arranged under antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic depending on their antagonistic character. Antibacterial agents treat bacterial infections and hence are specified as antibacterial, agents that treat viruses are specified as antivirals and agents that are used against fungi and parasites are specified as antifungals and antiparasitics respectively. The toxicity of these agents especially antibacterial agents against humans and analogous animals are quite low. Antimicrobial pesticides benefits the economy by the controlled growth of microbes due to disinfection, reduction of growth thereby protecting various industrial processes, surfaces and water from contamination and spoilage caused by these micro-organisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, algae. Antibacterial antibiotics are categorized as broad-spectrum and/or narrow- spectrum depending on the scope of bacterial infection.
- Track 11-1Antibacterials
- Track 11-2Antivirals
- Track 11-3Antifungals
- Track 11-4Antimicrobial resistance
- Track 11-5Antimicrobial pesticides
Antimicrobial therapy implements the clinical use of antimicrobial agents in treating communicable disease. The positive conclusion of this antimicrobial medical care depends on many factors like website of infection, host defense mechanisms and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic activity of the medication agent. A disinfectant activity depends on the microorganism growth and microorganism division. Findings relied upon varied laboratory studies is employed to eliminate microorganism infection from a bunch. because the activity of medication agent depends on its concentration, in vitro characterization of medication activity usually involves the MIC - minimum restrictive concentration and MBC that is that the minimum disinfectant concentration of medication agent. Antimicrobial agents that treat microorganism infections area unit given as medication therapy, equally for plant life, microorganism and protozoan infections area unit they're given as antifungal, antiviral and medication therapy. infective Variation poses a profound challenge in planning a vaccinum.
- Track 12-1 Antibacterial chemotherapy
- Track 12-2Antifungal chemotherapy
- Track 12-3Antiprotozoal chemotherapy
- Track 12-4Antiviral chemotherapy
- Track 12-5Antimicrobials Chemotherapy
Identification of a specific infectious agent for a precise infection or a disease is done in clinical presentation like for instance, in gastrointestinal disease and in bacterial skin infections. Diagnosis is done by consultation of patient’s medical history, physical examination and the diagnostic tests. Diagnostic microbiology laboratory plays a crucial role in diagnosis; however the conclusive analysis of the resulting causative agents is concluded only by experts. Isolating of microbiological culture is the primitive approach for isolation of the causative organism in the laboratory which is then closely followed by the biochemical tests and then advanced serological assays and the final step is the polymerase reactions. In drug resistance the microbial cell mechanically ceases the uptake of a drug, while some resist drugs eventually by formation of the Biofilm by annexing itself to the surfaces of medical device like catheters and prostheses. Regular intake of natural probiotics provide positive health benefits by improving gastrointestinal health by increasing the number of bacteria or by inhibiting pathogens.
- Track 13-1Microbial diagnosis
- Track 13-2Serological diagnosis
- Track 13-3Advanced methods
- Track 13-4PCR applications
Antimicrobial resistance is an indispensable causatum which leads to millions of fatalities annaually. Infections now, are slowly getting untreatable, primarily because of the antimicrobial resistance. All microbes slowly are developing resistance against their microbial agents; like for instance fungi developed antifungal resistance, viruses started attenuating antiviral resistance and protozoa have developed antiprotozoal resistance. Bacterial antibiotic resistance confers a paramount threat of infection non-prevention in multitudes. Antibiotics should solitarily be used only/ if it is indispensable and precisely only when prescribed by a licensed health professional. To prevent or lower the factor of antimicrobial resistance, awareness for using Narrow-spectrum antibiotics should be taught. Antibiotic resistance is quite problematic and various policymakers and pharma industries help in tackllng resistance by supporting various innovative and novel approaches.
- Track 14-1Antibiotic usage
- Track 14-2Mechanisms of resistance
- Track 14-3Monitoring and Strategies
Microbial biochemistry comprises of biochemical reactions in microbial growth, various modes and mechanisms/ processes of pathogenesis required in causing infection/ diseases in the host. It involves the study of microbial growth, microbial cell structure, microbial metabolism, primary and advanced functions and the interactions of biological macromolecules, like carbohydrates, proteins, Fatty Acids and Lipids and nucleic acids; which cater the skeletal aspect and basis of functions affiliated with life. Biochemical study of microbes is crucial in the processes of their action. Post genomic analyses, maintenance of mechanisms, & functional replication, integrating plasmid functions, conjugation systems and regulatory network are the key factors that play a vital role in metabolism of microbes. When monomers are co-linked to synthesize a polymer, dehydration occurs often resulting in assembly of different macromolecules in a much larger complexes.
- Track 15-1Chemical Biology
- Track 15-2Chemical Microbiology
- Track 15-3Microbial metabolism
- Track 15-4Microbial Genetics
- Track 15-5Microbial Assay
Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microbes which spread either directly or indirectly from one person to another. These can be classified as either bacterial, viral, zoonotic, parasitic or fungal infection depending on causative agents. Most of infections are not lethal and organism is annihilated after the symptoms wane. The process requires immune mechanisms to kill the source of the pathogen. Specific acquired immunity antagonistic to the infectious diseases are mediated by either antibodies or by T lymphocytes. The immune response causes high fever, inflammation, and also has the probability to be devastating to a microbe. Phylodynamic models help in locating the epidemic and pandemic origins. The agile rate of evolution and growth in viruses allows molecular clocks to envisage the genetic sequences, thereby providing the precise rate of evolution of the virus.
- Track 16-1Immunity to Microbial Infections
- Track 16-2Infection and Immunity
- Track 16-3Infectious disease surveillance
- Track 16-4Phylodynamics of infectious diseases
Health science comprises applied sciences biomedicine, healthcare. Diagnostics methods like primordial physical examination, past medical history and current medical imaging cover the rudiments of first diagnosis of the illness which follow expedited laboratory diagnosis of patient for any serological infectious agents. Health care is provided through a myriad of fields like dentistry, pharmacy, and medicine; also involving treatment and prevention of illnesses. As the resistance of drugs is proving to be herculean challenge, alternative medicine is a boon in a holistic approach.
- Track 17-1Alternative medicine
- Track 17-2Allergic Disease
- Track 17-3General health
- Track 17-4Immunology
Host microorganism interaction takes place between a microorganism and a number. associate degree symptomless infection is that the one during which microorganism resides in host while not inflicting any harm; Microbes are often each hosts and pathogens and also the studies of microorganism pathologic process results in the identification of molecular variations between a morbific and a non-pathogenic bug. Microbial Virulence depends on host factors, like pathogenicity of associate degree avirulent bug in disorder host and conjointly the missing of the pathogenicity of virulent pathogens in immune hosts. The live of virulence is that the ability of a bug to cause illness in any animal, centralized to the Koch’s postulates.
- Track 18-1Site of interaction
- Track 18-2Microbial Commensalism
- Track 18-3Colonization and Infection
- Track 18-4Microbial virulence
The study of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of various infectious diseases is termed as Medical microbiology. Medical microbiology is the application of all non-pathogenic microbes for improving health and in prevention of epidemics, outbreak of various diseases. Microorganisms commonly causing infections are bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses and also a viral infectious protein called as a prion. Detailed identification techniques used in laboratories are typically microbial culture followed by microscopy, Electron microscopy and biochemical tests and then genotyping. Medical microbiologists recommend treatment based on the report of a strain of microbe and the prevalent antibiotic resistances, precise site and source of infection, the probable toxicity of drugs and drug allergies. Drug resistance comprises chemically inactivating of a drug or a cell ceasing the uptake of a drug.
- Track 19-1 Infectious diseases
- Track 19-2Microbial diagnosis
- Track 19-3Molecular Applications
- Track 19-4 Treatment and prevention