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8th Annual Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, will be organized around the theme “”
Clinical Microbiology & Infections is comprised of 22 tracks and 53 sessions designed to offer comprehensive sessions that address current issues in Clinical Microbiology & Infections.
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The clinical microbiology laboratory plays a critical role in diagnosis and management of patients with lower respiratory tract infections. By providing pathogen detection and identification and susceptibility testing the laboratory provides the basis of optimal empirical antimicrobial therapy and individually tailored regimens.1 The microbiology laboratory also provides epidemiologic data that assist the hospital epidemiologist in the prevention, detection, investigation, and termination of nosocomial outbreaks.2 When correctly and promptly used, the information provided by the clinical microbiology laboratory improves clinical outcomes, reduces unnecessary utilization of antibiotics, and prevents nosocomial transmissions.
Clinical microbiology is a discipline that incorporates testing for a diverse group of microorganisms. Clinical microbiology laboratories perform aerobic and anaerobic bacteriology, parasitology, micro bacteriology, mycology, and virology. Clinical microbiology is also a rather complex discipline because it utilizes many different types of methodologies and constantly undergoes changes in testing methods. There is significant overlap in methods used to diagnose microbial diseases, and the microbiology laboratory may comprise several disciplines (e.g., classical culture methods, antigen detection methods, molecular methods, and serological methods are often performed under the purview of microbiology). Despite the improvements in microbiological testing, microorganisms remain a constant challenge, and errors do occasionally occur. Clinical microbiology is somewhat unique among the laboratory disciplines in that it remains heavily reliant on manual testing and interpretive/subjective skills, and it is somewhat subjective.
Clinical microbiology laboratories use a number of rapid tests to detect specific microbial antigens or nucleic acids in primary nontissue specimens. For example, Cryptococcus antigen testing can be performed on cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and antigen testing for respiratory viruses can be performed on nasopharyngeal specimens. Molecular techniques are being used increasingly in clinical laboratories to detect pathogen-specific nucleic acids and have most notably been applied to virologic diagnosis, as discussed later. The introduction and rapid expansion of molecular techniques, especially nucleic acid detection methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/DNA amplification, to the detection of infectious agents requires clinicians to be familiar with the properties of new diagnostic tests as they enter common use.
Clinical microbiology laboratory plays an important role in patient care by providing the cause of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility data to physicians. Rapid diagnosis of pathogens is important for initiating effective antibiotic administration and improving the outcomes of treatment. Conventional diagnosis of microorganisms uses phenotypic identification and gene sequencing, which is tedious and time-consuming. In contrast, MALDI–TOF/MS is a simple, rapid, reproducible, and low-cost technique that has been successfully applied to identify pathogens [135–143]. Based on characteristic peptide and protein profiles obtained from intact cells, MALDI–TOF/MS allows a highly discriminatory identification of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi even after 10 min of culture. With the use of a database to identify microorganisms, the reliability and accuracy of this approach have been demonstrated, and systems (including instrument and software) are already commercially available [135–143]. The applications of MALDI–TOF/MS in research on pathogens and microorganisms include identification of pathogens from positive blood cultures and urine, real-time diagnosis of blood stream infections, and detection of antibiotic resistance bacteria
Clinical microbiology laboratories require accurate and reliable methods to identify clinically significant microorganisms. Conventional microbiological methods rely on isolating potential pathogens in culture prior to microorganism identification. The same requirement is also true for MALDI-TOF MS, although the method has also been applied directly to select clinical samples.MALDI-TOF MS does not have this requirement. Because only 104–106 CFU are required for testing, direct identification from the primary culture plate is therefore also possible without the need to perform subculture. Furthermore, not all microorganisms can be reliably identified using traditional biochemical-based methods and may require molecular-based methods for identification (e.g. 16S reran sequencing). Molecular methods are generally expensive to perform, require specialized technical expertise and may not be available in all clinical microbiology laboratories
Most clinical microbiology labs will not routinely identify Cryptococcus isolates to the species level. Although cultures may take up to a week to become positive, Cryptococcus spp. grow on most clinical media, including standard radiometric blood culturing systems. However, in the diagnosis of pulmonary disease, both the sensitivity and specificity of cultures of respiratory secretions are questionable.As previously described, imaging of the chest by plain radiograph and CT is not diagnostic. Isolated or multiple nodules, pulmonary masses, lobar consolidation, cavitary lesions, pleural effusion, diffuse interstitial infiltrates, and adult respiratory distress–like appearance have all been described with pulmonary cryptococcosis. If signs of increased intracranial pressure or other signs suggestive of CNS infection are present, magnetic resonance imaging or CT of the head to rule out hydrocephalus and cryptococcomas is indicated.Given the limitations of noninvasive methods, invasive procedures are often necessary to confirm the diagnosis of Cryptococcus’s, especially when involvement is limited to the lungs. Either fine-needle aspiration or biopsy may be required to confirm the diagnosis. When pleural effusions are present, cultures of thoracentesis fluid are positive in about 40% of AIDS patients
In today's clinical microbiology laboratory, automation is being introduced that will change the nature of how clinical specimens are processed and analyses. Over the last several years, many microbiology laboratories have implemented automation to process liquid specimens which have historically been inoculated to media manually. In some institutions, this automation has been able to free up staff to concentrate on other tasks and has resulted in increased efficiency in the laboratory setting. In addition to efficiency, there are ergonomic gains in the workplace due to the pre-analytical plating instruments since tasks that are manual such as de-capping and re-capping specimens are now performed by the automated processor. This functionality reduces the ergonomic impact of the manual task and improves the work place environment for the employee. This pre-analytical plating instrumentation is now being integrated within a suite of instruments referred to as Total Laboratory Automation, or TLA, which includes digital plate reading (DPR) and middleware technology applied to culture analysis. DPR and associated middleware allow the laboratory to analyse cultures in a new and innovative way. The inoculated media is imaged using a camera in the “smart incubator”, and the image presented to the technologist via the computer screen at the bench. The analysis of the culture occurs using the digital image. Further workup, such as picking a colony for mass spectrometry or automated identification, is being automated as well. This chapter will discuss the new and innovative automation solutions available for the clinical microbiology laboratory today.
In a clinical microbiology laboratory, two areas depend on visual analysis or manual dexterity. First, the examination and recognition of specific characteristics of bacterial colonies growing on agar. This is a skill which requires pattern recognition and takes months, if not years, for a person to learn. Second, purifying organisms from a mixed growth by isolating individual bacterial colonies (picking colonies) requires high degrees of manual skill and hand-eye co-ordination. These skills, which are unique to clinical microbiology, take prolonged practice to perfect and depend on memorising a large body of information. A major part of the laboratory activity in bacteriology continues to depend on these processes. Third, microscopy is used for examination of a wide range of samples and tests. These include examination of: Gram stains of fresh clinical material or organisms isolated from specimens; stools for parasites; tissue culture cells for evidence of a cytopathic effect and performing cell counts on samples such as cerebrospinal fluid. Much of medical mycology is dependent on visual recognition. Electron microscopy is also available in some laboratories to aid viral diagnosis. These activities share much in common with other specialties of pathology such as histopathology, cytology and haematology which also utilise microscopy extensively. The results from these processes are largely dependent on producing a descriptive written report which, again, increases the complexity over those processes which can produce a numerical result. Therefore, full laboratory automation for performing these analyses and producing a test result will depend on highly sophisticated image analysis, advanced artificial intelligence and robotics.
Emerging infectious diseases (including community-, hospital- and bioterrorism-acquired infections), emerging resistance to antimicrobial agents and increased social demand are increasing the volume and altering the nature of the activities required from clinical microbiology laboratories. Centralization, an increase in automation and advances in bioinformatics allow clinical microbiology laboratories to keep up with these ever-increasing demands. Technologies and techniques that are progressing at the moment include rapid molecular detection, identification and genotyping of bacteria; antimicrobial-resistance determination; rapid immunological detection of pathogens; easy-to-use electron microscopy; and data digitalization and the secure online exchange of information. The future evolution of clinical microbiology might include the spread of 'at-doctor' tests and bedside tests at the same time as specialized diagnoses are centralized in reference laboratories that are connected on national and international scales. Centralization should allow the development of p3/p4 laboratories, molecular-biology platforms, including mass spectrometry, and serology platforms, including antigenic microarrays for serodiagnosis.Sampling strategies might evolve towards pathology-based sampling kits in accordance with the development of multiplex platforms. In addition, data reporting could be based solely on digitalized figures and could include data interpretation and the addition of electronic links to up-to-date literature, which can be exchanged in a timely manner through the internet. Large clinical microbiology laboratories could engage in the regular reporting of epidemiological trends for pathogens, pathogen subtypes and antimicrobial resistance.
Clinical Microbiology conference provides a comprehensive theoretical and practical review of advanced techniques like robotics surgery, sensitive skin, hybridism technology, iris scanning, medical imaging and thermography. Clinical Microbiology is the subject in which any microbes can cause infection in humans. As we know, new microorganisms are being discovered all the time and they are developing more and more resistance to antibiotics, hence microbiologist aims at the application of different microbes for the betterment of human health.Antimicrobial therapy implements the clinical use of antimicrobial agents in treating communicable disease. The positive conclusion of this antimicrobial medical care depends on many factors like website of infection, host defense mechanisms and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics activity of the medication agent. A disinfectant activity depends on the microorganism growth and microorganism division.
- Track 10-1Anti-Microbial chemotherapy
- Track 10-2Immunology
- Track 10-3Antifungal chemotherapy
- Track 10-4Antimicrobials Chemotherapy
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the capability of a microbe to prevent the effects of medication already used to treat them. Antimicrobial medicines may be sorted in keeping with the microorganisms they act primarily against. As an example, antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. Agents that kill microbes are called microbicidal, whereas those who simply inhibit their growth are called biostatic. Resistance can be present automatically because of accidental mutations; or progressive buildup over time, and because of over usage or misuse of antimicrobials or antibiotics. Resistant microbes are difficult to treat, compelling another medications or higher doses, which may be harmful or costly.
- Track 11-1Multidrug Resistance
- Track 11-2Antimicrobial Resistance
- Track 11-3Classification of antimicrobial agents
- Track 11-4Mechanism of action of Antiviral drugs
Microbial Pathogenesis is the study of the molecular mechanisms used by microbes to cause disease in humans and animals. Microbial pathogens incorporate microscopic organisms, infections, growths, and parasites and together record for a huge rate of intense and unending human illnesses. Host-microorganism associations require an interdisciplinary methodology, including microbiology, genomics, informatics, molecular and cell science, natural chemistry, immunology, and the study of disease transmission.
- Track 12-1Bacterial pathogenicity factors
- Track 12-2Hospital Support Services
- Track 12-3Bacterial growth
- Track 12-4Mode of action and Spectrum of activity
- Track 12-5Viruses, prokaryotic organisms and protozoa
- Track 12-6Immune mechanisms
- Track 12-7Host susceptibility or resistance
- Track 12-8Virulence factors
- Track 12-9Food borne microbial pathogens
- Track 12-10Bacterial diseases
An antimicrobial can be described as an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial medicines can be assembled according to the microorganisms they principally act against. Antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. Antimicrobial chemotherapy implements the clinical use of antimicrobial agents in treating infectious disease. The positive conclusion of this antimicrobial medical aid depends on many factors like site of infection, host defence mechanisms and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics activity of the antibacterial drug agent. They can also be categorised according to their function. The use of antimicrobial medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while the use of antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis. Antimicrobial agents that treat microorganism infections are a unit such as medicine therapy, equally for the fungal, microorganism and protozoan infections are such as antifungal, antiviral and antiprotozoal therapy.
A branch of biology that concerns with the study of fungi, with their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source of wine, cheese, edible mushrooms and their harmful effects such as toxin or infection. Fungi and other organisms recognized as fungi, such as oomycetes and myxomycetes (slime molds), often are economically essential, as some of them cause diseases in animals such as histoplasmosis. Food spoilage caused by fungi and yeasts can be more significant, particularly in a number of key food groups, those that are acidic in nature or have low moisture content. Mycotoxicology is another branch of mycology that focuses on study of toxins produced by fungi, called as mycotoxins.
- Track 14-1Food Mycology
- Track 14-2Medical mycology
- Track 14-3Veterinary Mycology
- Track 14-4Mycotoxicology
- Track 14-5Mycological Diversity
A disease is an abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function that affects part or the organism entirely. The study of disease is called pathology which includes the study of cause of the disease. Disease is often construed as a medical condition associated with specific symptoms and signs. Detection of a specific agent for an infection or a health problem is done in clinical presentation. It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens, or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions particularly of the immune system such as an immunodeficiency, or a hypersensitivity including allergies and autoimmunity.
Host pathogen interaction takes place between a pathogen and a host. Pathogens include bacteria, fungi and viruses. Each of these several types of organisms can then be further classified as a pathogen based on its mode of transmission. This includes the following: food borne, airborne, waterborne, blood borne, and vector-borne. Many pathogenic bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium botulinum are food borne pathogens that secrete toxins into the host to cause symptoms. HIV and Hepatitis B are viral infections caused by blood borne pathogens, and Aspergillus is the most common pathogenic fungi that secretes aflatoxin which acts as a carcinogen and contaminates many foods, especially those grown underground (nuts, potatoes, etc.,).
- Track 16-1Host pathogen protein interactions
- Track 16-2Resistance in wild host pathogen interaction
- Track 16-3Epigenetics of Host Pathogen interaction
- Track 16-4General Aspects on Bacterial Protein Toxin
Contamination is the intrusion of a living being's body tissues by ailment causing specialists, their increase, and the response of host tissues to these life forms and the poisons they produce. Diseases are caused by irresistible specialists including infections, viroids, prions, microorganisms, nematodes, for example, parasitic roundworm sand pinworms, arthropods, for example, ticks, bugs, insects, and lice, organisms, for example, ringworm, and different macroparasites, for example, tapeworms and different helminths. A contamination caused by microorganisms. The development of numerous ailment causing microscopic organisms can be stopped by the utilization of anti-toxins.
- Track 17-1Parasitic Infections
- Track 17-2Fungal Infections
- Track 17-3Viral Infections
- Track 17-4Bacterial diseases
The capacity of an organism to resist disease, either through the activities of dedicated blood cells or antibodies produced by them in response to natural exposure or inoculation (active immunity). A vaccine is a product that produces immunity from a disease and can be directed through needle injections, by mouth, or by aerosol. A vaccination is the injection of a killed or weakened organism that produces immunity in the body against that organism. There are vaccines that are administered entirely when the patient has contracted an illness. The intent of such immunizations is to cause an immediate reaction with weakened side-effects.
- Track 18-1Immune response
- Track 18-2Vaccines mediate protection
- Track 18-3Main effectors of vaccine responses
- Track 18-4Adaptive immunity activation
Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated with infection, a practical (rather than academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology. Anti-infective agents include antibiotics, antibacterial, antifungals, antivirals and antiprotozoal. These are promptly accessible to infections. Infection control and Hospital epidemiology are related to the general public health practice. Infection management contains elements relevant to the spreading of infections; either within the hospitals or alternative aid centres, as well as difficulty via hand hygiene, cleansing or disinfection or sanitization, vaccines or surveillance and probe of infections in a health-care domain. Sterilization kills all microorganisms. The essential issue is that disinfection is less effective than sterilization because disinfection doesn't harm microorganism spores or dominant bacteria.
- Track 19-1Healthcare Epidemiology
- Track 19-2Prevention of Healthcare-Associated Infections
- Track 19-3Disinfection and Sterilization
- Track 19-4Bioterrorism
A biofilm is any cluster of microorganisms among that cells persists with one another and sometimes these cells adhere to a surface. These follower cells wind up plainly inserted inside a foul extracellular lattice that is made out of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS parts are delivered by the phones inside the biofilm and are normally a polymeric aggregation of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and speak to a group way of life for microorganisms, biofilms are every now and again depicted allegorically as "urban communities for microbes." A biofilm is a framework that can be adjusted inside to ecological conditions by its occupants.
- Track 20-1Extracellular Polymeric Substances
- Track 20-2Taxonomic diversity
- Track 20-3Biofilms in medicine
- Track 20-4Biofilms in the food industry
Microbial biochemistry covers the principles and importance of microbes, their growth and their effects on our surroundings and on human health specifically. Microbial biochemistry allowed the formulation of concepts that turned out to be significant in the study of higher organisms. The outline of various layers that enclose the bacterial protoplasm and their role in getting nutrients from the surface media through totally different permeability mechanism are represented. Fundamentals of the mechanisms are how cells get the energy necessary for their growth, mechanisms like, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway etc.
- Track 21-1Allosteric enzyme
- Track 21-2Biological fixation of nitrogen
- Track 21-3Biosynthesis of amino acids
- Track 21-4Biosynthesis of Deoxyribonucleotides
- Track 21-5ATP generating processes
Chronic Diseases are long-term medical conditions that are generally progressive. Chronic diseases, such as Heart Disease, Diabetes, Stroke, Asthma, Cancer, Chronic Respiratory Diseases, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Lipid Disorders. At present, these are the major causes of disability and death globally, representing 60% of all deaths. Chronic diseases generally cannot be prevented by vaccines or cured by medication, nor do they just disappear. Health damaging behaviors - particularly tobacco use, lack of physical activity, and poor eating habits - are major contributors to the leading chronic diseases. Chronic diseases tend to become more common with age. Adopting healthy lifestyle practices such as a healthy diet, regular physical activity, and avoiding tobacco use can prevent or control the onset of debilitating and expensive complications of chronic diseases.
- Track 22-1Epidemiology
- Track 22-2Dialectology & Metabolic Diseases
- Track 22-3Obesity
- Track 22-4Cancer
- Track 22-5Kidney Disease